The Political Future of Affirmative Action
As Pennsylvania’s Primary Election approaches, one of the unexpected political issues is affirmative action. Newsweek columnist Seth Colter Walls discusses the situation in Obama’s Postracial Test. The column describes the election battleground created by state ballot initiatives like California’s Proposition 209 and Michigan’s Proposal 2 that prohibit public institutions from considering race, sex or ethnicity in hiring, contracting for goods/services or college admissions. Similar ballot initiatives may appear in Arizona, Colorado, Missouri, Nebraska and Oklahoma. For now, Newsweek’s Dahlia Lithwick states in her column, A Complicated Record On Race, that both sides think Mr. Obama agrees with them.
The Timeline of Affirmative Action began with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and has taken many forms since then. Most of us in the employment world are familiar with the Affirmative Action Programs created by Executive Order 11246. However, there are many other state and federal programs which create preferences based on gender and race. These programs have judicial approval provided the government can pass the “strict scrutiny test” by demonstrating that there is a compelling need for the program and the program is narrowly tailored to meet the need. As the economy contracts, the most contentious areas of debate may focus on government “set-aside” programs for purchased goods and services.
The United States Supreme Court has considered contracting programs in three of its decisions. In its 1980 decision in Fullilove v. Klutznick, the Supreme Court ruled that some modest quotas were perfectly constitutional. The Court upheld a federal law requiring that 15% of funds for public works be set aside for qualified minority contractors. The "narrowed focus and limited extent" of the affirmative action program did not violate the equal rights of non-minority contractors, according to the Court—there was no "allocation of federal funds according to inflexible percentages solely based on race or ethnicity."
In City of Richmond v. Croson, the Supreme Court went the other way ruling that an "amorphous claim that there has been past discrimination in a particular industry cannot justify the use of an unyielding racial quota." It maintained that affirmative action must be subject to "strict scrutiny" and is unconstitutional unless racial discrimination can be proven to be "widespread throughout a particular industry." The Court maintained that "the purpose of strict scrutiny is to ‘smoke out’ illegitimate uses of race by assuring that the legislative body is pursuing a goal important enough to warrant use of a highly suspect tool. The test also ensures that the means chosen `fit’ this compelling goal so closely that there is little or no possibility that the motive for the classification was illegitimate racial prejudice or stereotype." This case involved affirmative action programs at the state and local levels—a Richmond program setting aside 30% of city construction funds for black-owned firms was challenged. For the first time, affirmative action was judged as a "highly suspect tool."
In Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Peña, the Court again called for "strict scrutiny" in determining whether discrimination existed before implementing a federal affirmative action program. "Strict scrutiny" meant that affirmative action programs fulfilled a "compelling governmental interest," and were "narrowly tailored" to fit the particular situation. Although two of the judges (Scalia and Thomas) felt that there should be a complete ban on affirmative action, the majority of judges asserted that "the unhappy persistence of both the practice and the lingering effects of racial discrimination against minority groups in this country" justified the use of race-based remedial measures in certain circumstances.